Грамматика

Смешанный тип условных предложений (Mixed Conditional Sentences)

Условные предложения смешанного типа – это такие сложноподчиненные предложения, в которых условие и следствие, т.е. придаточное и главное предложения, относятся к разному времени. Употребление форм сослагательного наклонения подчиняется в них общему правилу: настоящие или будущие действия передаются неперфектными (несовершенными) формами, а действия, относящиеся к прошлому – перфектными (совершенными).

При этом часто условие по смыслу и не относится к какому-либо времени (обычно в подобных высказываниях говорится о постоянных действиях, возможных при описанном в придаточном предложении условии, либо характеристиках подлежащего).

В качестве наглядных примеров описанному выше принципу рассмотрим строение помещенных в таблицу условных предложений смешанного типа.

предложения перевод
If I had taken that book at the library yesterday, I would get a good mark for my exam now. Если бы вчера я взял ту книгу в библиотеке, я бы сейчас получил хорошую оценку на экзамене.
If he were educated, he wouldn’t have made such mistakes. Если бы он был образованным, он бы не допустил таких ошибок.
If they were serious people, they wouldn’t behave so silly. Если бы они были серьезными людьми, они бы не вели себя так легкомысленно.

Как следует из представленной таблицы, подобные высказывания начинаются не с главного, а с придаточного предложения условия, в котором на первом месте стоит союз «если». Отметим, что подобное строение условных предложений данного типа свойственно и русскому языку. Например: «Если бы я знал об этих трудностях, я бы не брался за это дело»: данное предложение тоже начинается с придаточной части и союза «если», который, хотя и служит для связи частей сложноподчиненного предложения, стоит на первом месте.

Сказуемое главного придаточного предложения выражено вспомогательным глаголом would в положительной или отрицательной (wouldn’t) форме (в зависимости от смысла предложения) и смыслового глагола в соответствующей форме. Отметим, что после глагола would частица to не ставится, поскольку это – модальный глагол (как и can, may, must, should, после которых to не ставится).

Следовательно, подобные предложения весьма просты для перевода и построения. В этом убедитесь и Вы сами, последовательно изучая английский язык. Однако не можем не подчеркнуть, что знакомство с грамматическими правилами само по себе (в отрыве от речевой практики) недостаточно и малоэффективно: обучение иностранному языку всегда тесно связано в работе с текстом и над текстом, а также с устной диалогической речью. Лишь читая, переводя или общаясь, Вы сможете научиться распознавать и строение высказываний, и их грамматические и синтаксические отличия. Наша компания будет рада Вам в этом помочь.

 

 

 

 

 

Дополнительное упражнение по теме №1
Choose the correct answer:
1.  If I ___ the lottery, I would be rich.
  a. had won b. win
2.   If I had taken French in high school, I ___ more job opportunities now.
  a. would have had b. would have
3. If she had been born in the United States, she ___ a visa to work here.
  a. wouldn’t need b. would have needed.
4. If I ___ rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday.
  a. had been b. were
5. If I ___ so much vacation time, I wouldn’t go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week.
  a. didn’t have b. hadn’t had
6. If she had enough money, she ___ for this trip to Hawaii with the other guys.
  a. could go b. could have gone
7. If Sam ___ Russian, he would have translated the letter for you yesterday.
  a. had spoken b. spoke
8. If I had told me that you are going to come over today, I ___ in.
  a. would be b. would have been
9. If Dan ___ so nice, he wouldn’t be tutoring you in math tonight.
  a. weren’t b. hadn’t been
10. If I didn’t have to work so much, I___ to the party last night.
  a. would go b. would have gone
11. If the parents ___ the cat, their children would have a new friend now.
  a. had bought b. buy
12. If Cindy were more creative, the company ___ her to New York to work on the new advertising campaign.
  a. send b. would send
13. If Donna weren’t making a big dinner for us tonight, I ___ that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.
  a. would have suggested b. would suggest
14. If Seb ___ with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed.
  a. doesn’t come b. didn’t come
15. If I ___ an aspirin, I wouldn’t have a headache now.
  a. had taken b. took
16. If you spoke English, you ___ along with them perfectly. Next time they are here, make sure you speak better English.
  a. would get b. would have got
17. If they had invited me, I ___ myself at the party now.
  a. would be enjoying b. would have been enjoying
18. If I ___ the film in the cinema, I wouldn’t watch it on TV now.
  a. had watched b. watched
19. She ___ forget to pick you up if you hadn’t phoned her.
  a. would b. will
20. If we ___ the book, we would understand the film better.
  a. read b. had read

 

 

Дополнительное упражнение по теме №2
Choose the correct answer:
1.  I ___ score better on the test if the teacher had explained the grammar once more.
  a. could b. can
2.   She wouldn’t have two laptops now if she ___ a special agreement when applying for the job.
  a. didn’t sign b. had not signed
3. If we had closed the window yesterday, it ___ so cold in here now.
  a. won’t be b. wouldn’t be
4. The computer wouldn’t crash so often if Larry ___ it.
  a. tested b. test
5. She would have visited Henry and Cliff in hospital if she ___ about the accident.
  a. had known b. knew
6. If he ___ the batteries, he would have enough power for his laptop.
  a. had recharged b. recharged
7. If Yvonne had watched the news, she ___ the puzzle now.
  a. would have solved b. would solve
8. If he ___ his own vegetables then, he wouldn’t have to buy them now.
  a. had grown b. grew
9. If I ___ politics earlier I could be Prime Minister now.
  a. entered b. had entered
10. If I had listened to my father’s advice I ___ a successful lawyer by now.
  a. would be b. would have been
11. If we __ earlier we would be there already.
  a. set off b. had set off
12. If the boy wasn’t so young he ___.
  a. will have been prosecuted b. would have been prosecuted
13. If she knew the language she ___ abroad instead of Kate.
  a. would have gone b. would go
14. If I had know you were not coming in advance  I ___  so angry now.
  a. won’t be b. wouldn’t be
15. If you ___ the test you would have the driving license now.
  a. had passed b. have passed
16. If you ___ so stubborn he would have agreed with us.
  a. are not b. were not
17. If you ___ me about the exhibition I wouldn’t be going to London.
  a. hadn’t told b. haven’t’ told
18. If you  ___ rude she wouldn’t have got offended.
  a. were not b. are not
19. If Sue knew how to behave she ___ a better job.
  a. will get b. would have got
20. If they were really happy they ___ so sad.
  a. won’t look b. wouldn’t look

 

 

Тесты и упражнения

Elementary

  1. Тест на Условные предложения
  2. Упражнения на условные предложения

Pre-intermediate

Упражнения на условные предложения